The dangerous Ebola virus disease (EVD) also Called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

The  dangerous Ebola virus disease (EVD) also Called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

It was about 38 years ago while on 26 August 1976 the first case of Ebola virus disease was reported. It was in a small village named Yambuku, This village is situated in Mongala District of northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head master of the school in this village Mr. Mabalo Lokela was the first victim, and also the first registered case of the disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It is believed that he got the infection some time between August 12 to August 22, 1976 while touring near the Central African Republic border along the Ebola river. He died shortly On 8 September 1976. The researchers identified the virus as a new type of virus related to Marburg. The researchers first found this virus in a village near Sudan Congo border near the Ebola river therefore it was named as “Ebola Virus” on the name of Ebola river. Another ebola virus, called the Sudan virus species, was also identified the same year when an outbreak occurred in Sudan, affecting nearly 300 people and killing more than 150 of them.

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) also Called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

Types of Ebola Virus

There are a number of Ebola Virus but only 4 of them, (1) Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), (1) Sudan virus (SUDV), (3) Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and (4)Ebola virus infect the human beings. The fourth, Ebola virus is the most dangerous of the known Ebola disease-causing viruses and is responsible for the most of outbreaks

Different Stages of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

The average time between contracting the infection and the start of symptoms is 8 to 10 days, but some times symptoms may appear as early as within two days and may appear as late as in 20- 21 days. The most dangerous phase, the bleeding phase may start 5 to 7 days after first symptoms appeared. The development of bleeding symptoms often indicates a worse stage and this blood loss can result in death. If the infected person does not recover, death due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome occurs within a fortnight, mostly within a week after first symptoms.


Symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

Signs and symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever usually begin suddenly. Common symptoms reported are -

1. In about 50% of EVD patients, early symptoms may be similar to those of malaria.

2. Sore throat, chest pain, hiccups, shortness of breath and trouble swallowing.

3.Flu-like stage indications like fatigue, fever, headaches, joint, muscle, and abdominal pain.

4.    Vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite are common.

5. Skin manifestations may include a maculopapular rash, dengue fever, or other tropical fevers, before the disease progresses to the bleeding phase.

6. In about half of the patients, bleeding from puncture sites and mucous membranes like nose, gums gastrointestinal tract and vagina, are reported.

7.    In the internal and subcutaneous bleeding may present itself through reddening of the eyes and bloody vomit.

8. Bleeding into the skin may create petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, and hematomas.

9. Bleeding includes blood vomiting, blood coughing  blood in the stool. Heavy bleeding is also reported in some cases, usually confined to the gastrointestinal tract.

10. All people infected show some symptoms of circulatory system involvement, including impaired blood clotting..

Transmission of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

The definite reasons about how Ebola is spread are not yet clear but it is believed that the Ebola Virus spreads through one or more of the following means-

1. The potential for widespread of Ebola Virus infections is considered to be low because this disease spreads by direct contact only with the secretions from someone who is suffering from infection.

2. Human-to-human transmission can occur via direct contact with blood or bodily fluids like sweat, saliva of an infected person.

3. Ebola Virus remains active even after death of the victim therefore the dead bodies may including embalming of an infected dead person may also spread it.

4. Ebola virus is transmitted to a human by contact with an infected animal's body fluids.

5. Through contaminated medical equipment, particularly needles and syringes.

6.    Semen is infectious in survivors for up to 50 days.

7. Transmission through oral exposure and through conjunctiva.

8. Exposure is likely and has been confirmed in non-human primates.

9.    Bushmeat is also believed to me a reason of spreading Ebola Virus.

10. Bats drop partially eaten fruits and pulp, gorillas, raptiles and duikers eat these. This chain of events may be a direct mean of transmission from the natural host(The Bats) to other animal. 

Precautions against Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)

1. Never contact infected person’s blood or secretions like sweat, salieva, including from those who are dead.

2. While caring the infected isolate them, sterilize equipment, and wearing protective clothing including masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles.

3.    Hand washing is important.

4.    Well-educated medical staff.

5.  Traditional burial rituals and embalming of bodies should be discouraged.

6.    Airline crews, who fly to these areas of the world, are taught to identify Ebola and isolate anyone who has symptoms.

7.    Quarantine, or enforced isolation, is effective.

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) also Called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Types of Ebola Virus, Different Stages of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Transmission of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Precautions against Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Vaccine of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Ebola, EVD, World Health Organization, Ebola Virus, ebola symptoms, what is ebola,

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